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In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G- Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams with percent confidence by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes.
Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G- Sample , entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample -mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.
Today's Extension professionals are tasked with more work and fewer resources. Integrating social media campaigns into outreach efforts can be an efficient way to meet work demands. If resources go toward social media , a practical method for collecting metrics is needed. Collecting metrics adds one more task to the workloads of Extension…. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis. Olivares, Jose A. An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes.
A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.
Evaluation of standardized sample collection , packaging, and Journal Sample collection procedures and primary receptacle sample container and bag decontamination methods should prevent contaminant transfer between contaminated and non-contaminated surfaces and areas during bio-incident operations. Cross-contamination of personnel, equipment, or sample containers may result in the exfiltration of biological agent from the exclusion hot zone and have unintended negative consequences on response resources, activities and outcomes.
The current study was designed to: 1 evaluate currently recommended sample collection and packaging procedures to identify procedural steps that may increase the likelihood of spore exfiltration or contaminant transfer; 2 evaluate the efficacy of currently recommended primary receptacle decontamination procedures; and 3 evaluate the efficacy of outer packaging decontamination methods. Wet- and dry-deposited fluorescent tracer powder was used in contaminant transfer tests to qualitatively evaluate the currently-recommended sample collection procedures.
Bacillus atrophaeus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis, were used to evaluate the efficacy of spray- and wipe-based decontamination procedures. Intellectual Freedom. Building Library Media Collections.
Noting that a deep concern about the suppression of ideas in the public schools of the United States is very much a part of the collective consciousness of the school library profession, the implications of intellectual freedom for school library personnel and for library collection development are explored. The position of the school library in….
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Biopolymers for sample collection , protection, and preservation. One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration.
Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage.
Strategies for sample collection , preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.
Sample Collection for the Russian Biodegradatsiya Experiment. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples. For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample.
The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample , the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected.
In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples. Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity EVA-3 at the Descartes landing site.
This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology. Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen s submitted for analysis.
This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties.
Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic.
Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission. By looking for evidence of water, carbon, and other important building blocks of life in the Martian soil and atmosphere, SAM will help discover whether Mars ever had the potential to support life. Curiosity will be delivered to Gale crater, a mile-wide crater that contains a record of environmental changes in its sedimentary rock, in August Equipped with a gas chromatograph, a quadruple mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer, SAM will carry out the initial search for organic compounds when the Mars Science Laboratory MSL rover lands in Federal Register , , , , The report summarizes Southern Research Institute's experience with greases and glass fiber filter material used as collection substrates in inertial cascade impactors.
Available greases and glass fiber filter media have been tested to determine which are most suitable for flue g To investigate the differences in semen quality between samples collected by masturbation in the clinic and at home. According to the location of semen collection , we divided the samples into two groups, clinic- collected and home- collected , and analyzed the differences in the semen parameters between the two groups with the SPSS Compared with the clinic- collected semen, the home- collected samples had significantly higher mean values in semen volume 4.
So the location of semen collection should be taken into consideration in infertility investigation. Buoyancy correction for PM sample media. Correct PM sample media for their buoyancy in air if you weigh them on a balance. The buoyancy correction depends on the sample media density, the density Total airborne mold particle sampling : evaluation of sample collection , preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments used in the study indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated.
An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4. Modest but significantly higher 1.
Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank. Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the research sample collections organized in the biobank.
The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was and that the number of samples varied from less than to over one million. Blood samples , such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, Also, as much as Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in In total, Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over , contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years.
More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections , will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life. Exploring collective memory and place attachment using social media data. This paper describes how collective memory and level of place attachment can be explored using social media data to develop a sustainable travel destination in the city of Yogyakarta.
Yogyakarta is famous as a tourist destination city for tourism in Indonesia. One of the reasons why people visit an object at travel destination is to recall the memory of the place. Memory is important for creating memorable space and places as it differentiates one place to another. Memorable places could grow as a symbol and an identity of a district in the city. This paper explores the collective memories recorded as status in the social media. The study identifies the distribution of such locations or nodes representing the memory footprint of the city of Yogyakarta, which can be achieved by determining the quality level of nodes based on the level of place attachment.
Analysis is done by looking at the number of caption status by location and time. Qualitative description is used to present the level of place attachment based on the content of the status captioned. The study shows that level of place attachment seems not to be influenced by the popularity of an object. However it affects how strong a travel destination might be sustainable in future development. Collection media and delayed freezing effects on microbial composition of human stool.
Different bacteria in stool have markedly varied growth and survival when stored at ambient temperature. It is paramount to develop optimal biostabilization of stool samples during collection and assess long-term storage for clinical specimens and epidemiological microbiome studies. We evaluated the effect of collection media and delayed freezing up to 7 days on microbial composition.
Intraclass correlation coefficients ICC across triplicates, collection media , and incubation time were estimated for taxonomy and alpha and beta diversity metrics. Freezing delay caused increased variance for Shannon index median ICC 0. Variance in observed species abundance and in phylogenetic distance whole tree was similarly increased with a 7-day delay. Antibiotics did not mitigate variance. No media had inferior ICCs at time 0 and differed markedly from any media in microbiome composition e.
The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol , or the rd day of the mission, Sept. The trench is about 23 centimeters 9 inches wide. The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. Some thoughts on problems associated with various sampling media used for environmental monitoring. Modern analytical instrumentation is capable of measuring a variety of trace elements at concentrations down into the single or double digit parts-per-trillion ng l-1 range.
This holds for the three most common sample media currently used in environmental monitoring programs: filtered water, whole-water and separated suspended sediment. Unfortunately, current analytical capabilities have exceeded the current capacity to collect both uncontaminated and representative environmental samples. The success of any trace element monitoring program requires that this issue be both understood and addressed. The environmental monitoring of trace elements requires the collection of calendar- and event-based dissolved and suspended sediment samples.
There are unique problems associated with the collection and chemical analyses of both types of sample media. Over the past 10 years, reported ambient dissolved trace element concentrations have declined. Generally, these decreases do not reflect better water quality, but rather improvements in the procedures used to collect , process, preserve and analyze these samples without contaminating them during these steps.
Further, recent studies have shown that the currently accepted operational definition of dissolved constituents material passing a 0. The existence of these artifacts raises questions about the generation of accurate, precise and comparable 'dissolved' trace element data.
Suspended sediment and associated trace elements can display marked short- and long-term spatial and temporal variability. This implies that spatially representative samples only can be obtained by generating composites using depth- and width-integrated sampling techniques. Additionally, temporal variations have led to the view that the determination of annual trace element fluxes may require nearly constant e.
Collective workload organization in confined excavation of granular media. Many social insects collectively construct large nests in complex substrates; such structures are often composed of narrow tunnels. The benefits of collective construction, including reduced construction costs per worker come with challenges of navigation in crowded, confined spaces. Here we study the workforce organization of groups of S. We monitor the activity levels of marked painted workers-defined as a number of tunnel visits over 12 hours- during initiation of tunnels. We hypothesize that this workload distribution is beneficial for excavation in crowded conditions, and use a 2D cellular automata CA model to reproduce behaviors of the excavating ants.
CA simulations reveal that tunnel construction rates decrease in groups of equally active animals compared to groups with the natural workload distribution. We use predictions of the CA model to organize collective excavation of granular material by teams of digging robots, and use the robots to test hypotheses of crowded excavation in the physical world.
The buoyancy correction depends on the sample media density, the density of air, and the density of the calibration weight used to calibrate the balance. The buoyancy Before an emission test, take the following steps to prepare PM sampling media e. This sampling depth can be reached without the use of a drill rig, direct-push technology, or other mechanized equipment. Analizing soil samples for biothreat agents may, for instance, define the extent of contamination or determine whether the concentrations of contaminants present a risk to public health, welfare, or the environment.
The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister. Kulczycki, E. The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth.
Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister.
The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection MASC canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars. The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection.
Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics. Abnormal gel flotation caused by contrast media during adrenal vein sampling. During adrenal venous sampling AVS procedure, radiologists administer a contrast agent via the catheter to visualize the proper catheter position. A patient with primary aldosteronism diagnostic-hypothesis was admitted for AVS. Samples were collected with syringe connected to a hydrophilic coated catheter by low-pressure aspiration from each of the four collection sites: inferior vena cava in the suprarenal portion, inferior vena cava in the infrarenal portion, left adrenal vein, and right adrenal vein; then immediately transferred from syringe to tubes with gel separator.
All tubes were centrifuged at x g for 10 minutes. At the end of centrifugation process, primary blood tubes containing blood from inferior vena cava and left adrenal vein exhibited the standard gel separator barrier, while tubes from right adrenal vein showed abnormal flotation of gel separator. The radiologist confirmed the usage of 2. This iodinated contrast media , with 1. We suggest using plain-tubes without gel separator for AVS in order to avoid preanalytical nonconformities. Moreover, a blood volume equivalent to twice the catheter extension should be discarded to eliminate residual contrast media before collection of samples for laboratory assays.
PubMed Central. Introduction During adrenal venous sampling AVS procedure, radiologists administer a contrast agent via the catheter to visualize the proper catheter position. Materials and methods A patient with primary aldosteronism diagnostic-hypothesis was admitted for AVS. Results At the end of centrifugation process, primary blood tubes containing blood from inferior vena cava and left adrenal vein exhibited the standard gel separator barrier, while tubes from right adrenal vein showed abnormal flotation of gel separator.
Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability. A gas- sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared IR spectral analysis.
The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel.
The cryostatic coupler includes a A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples. An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module.
The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain. A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth.
Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample , then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments.
Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front lower end, a hollow core for retaining a sample , a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear upper annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.
For capturing PM, we recommend using pure quartz filters with no binder. Select the filter diameter to minimize filter change intervals, accounting for the expected PM emission rate, sample flow rate, and In those cases New approaches to the analysis of complex samples using fluorescence lifetime techniques and organized media.
Fluorescence spectroscopy is a highly sensitive and selective tool for the analysis of complex systems. In order to investigate the efficacy of several steady state and dynamic techniques for the analysis of complex systems, this work focuses on two types of complex, multicomponent samples : petrolatums and coal liquids.
It is shown in these studies dynamic, fluorescence lifetime-based measurements provide enhanced discrimination between complex petrolatum samples. Additionally, improved quantitative analysis of multicomponent systems is demonstrated via incorporation of organized media in coal liquid samples. In the petroleum studies, phase-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy is used to combine spectral and lifetime information through the measurement of phase-resolved fluorescence intensity.
The intensity is collected as a function of excitation and emission wavelengths, angular modulation frequency, and detector phase angle. This multidimensional information enhances the ability to distinguish between complex samples with similar spectral characteristics. Examination of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors from factor analysis of phase-resolved and steady state excitation-emission matrices, using chemometric methods of data analysis, confirms that phase-resolved fluorescence techniques offer improved discrimination between complex samples as compared with conventional steady state methods.
To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: 1 analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges.
Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge Lichen accumulated the highest SOC concentrations, in part because of its long and unknown exposure period, while PASDs accumulated the lowest concentrations. All four passive sampling media preferentially accumulated SOCs with relatively low air-water partition coefficients, while snowpack accumulated SOCs with higher log KOA values compared to the other media.
Methods for collection and analysis of water samples. This manual contains methods used by the U. Geological Survey to collect , preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ.
Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling , field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories. Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing.
This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: i two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and ii vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection.
The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand in thermal containers. After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal or near-optimal collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle.
Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively.
These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs.
Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency.
Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate Prospective cohort studies are needed to assess the relationship between the fecal microbiome and human health and disease. Fifty-two healthy volunteers provided fecal samples at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, in One set from each sample collection method was frozen immediately, and a second set was incubated at room temperature for 96 hours and then frozen.
Intraclass correlation coefficients ICCs were calculated for the relative abundance of 3 phyla, 2 alpha diversity metrics, and 4 beta diversity metrics. Technical reproducibility was high, with ICCs for duplicate fecal samples between 0. Stability for most methods was generally high, although the ICCs were below 0. When compared with fecal samples that were frozen immediately, the ICCs were below 0. In conclusion, all fecal sample collection methods appear relatively reproducible, stable, and accurate. Future studies could use these collection methods for microbiome analyses.
Depictions of mental illness in print media : a prospective national sample. Because there are no published reports of depictions of mental illness in print media based on national samples , we set out to prospectively collect and analyse a near complete New Zealand sample of print media. A commercial clipping bureau was contracted to provide cuttings of all items with any mental health or illness aspect over a four week period. These items were analysed for potentially positive and negative depictions and how mental illness was represented within each item.
Negative depictions that predominate confirm the stereotypic understanding of mental illness that is stigmatizing. These findings underscore the challenge facing us as mental health professionals attempting to change attitudes towards mental disorders when the stereotypes are so regularly reinforced. Zeigler, R. In addition to the labs that house the samples , we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs.
We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples , we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics weight, location, etc.
Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing. A Urine Sampling and Collection System USCS engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection , volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems.
Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling. AS 11 Dec. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity EVA at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by astronaut Eugene A.
Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The Lunar Rake, an Apollo Lunar Geology Hand Tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch 1. Schmitt, lunar module pilot, collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity EVA at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by astronaut Eugene Cernan, commander. The lunar rake, an Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch 1.
In many ways, science classrooms and school library media centers are parallel universes struggling with their own reform issues and with documenting their own positive impacts. As the trend toward data-driven decisions grows in the school setting, it is increasingly important for every component of the learning environment to have demonstrable…. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples. A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial.
The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool. Molecular epidemiology biomarkers- Sample collection and processing considerations.
Biomarker studies require processing and storage of numerous biological samples with the goals of obtaining a large amount of information and minimizing future research costs. An efficient study design includes provisions for processing of the original samples , such as cryopreservation, DNA isolation, and preparation of specimens for exposure assessment.
Use of standard, two-dimensional and nanobarcodes and customized electronic databases assure efficient management of large sample collections and tracking results of data analyses. Standard operating procedures and quality control plans help to protect sample quality and to assure validity of the biomarker data.
Appropriate informed consent must be obtained from the study subjects prior to sample collection and confidentiality of results maintained. Finally, examples of three biorepositories of different scale European Cancer Study, National Cancer Institute and School of Public Health Biorepository, University of California, Berkeley are used to illustrate challenges faced by investigators and the ways to overcome them.
New software and biorepository technologies are being developed by many companies that will help to bring biological banking to a new level required by molecular epidemiology of the 21st century. Social media collections are becoming increasingly important in the everyday life of Internet users. Recent statistics show that sites hosting social media and community-generated content account for five of the top ten most visited websites in the United States  are visited regularly by a broad cross-section of Internet users [61, 67, ] and…. Social media are increasingly being used for educational purposes.
The first part of this article briefly reviews literature that reports on educational applications of social media tools. The second part discusses theories that may provide a basis for analyzing the processes that are relevant for individual learning and collective knowledge…. Over the past several decades indigenous people in Canada have mounted hundreds of collective action events such as marches, demonstrations, road blockades, and land occupations. What the general public knows about these events and their causes overwhelmingly comes from the mainstream mass media. For this reason, media coverage of these events….
Tsou, P. This was made on January 2, Before the encounter three significant model predictions existed for the number and size of samples to be captured. Spectacular images were captured of the Wild 2 nucleus and dust jets. This abstract compares the model predictions with the in situ measurements and Wild 2 images and assesses the likely samples to be returned for analysis on January 15, To give some lead time for sample analysts to prepare for the analyses of the returned samples , the organization of the Preliminary Examination is presented.
PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion of A valuable resource for new or experienced school librarians, " Collection Development for the School Library Media Program: A Beginner's Guide" is an easy-to-use guide to collection development. It provides practical and relevant information about collection development issues such as: the school users, policies, selection criteria and sources,….
Integrating real-time GIS and social media for qualitative transportation data collection. New technologies such as global positioning system, smartphone, and social media are changing the way we move around. Traditional : transportation research has overwhelmingly emphasized the collection of quantitative data for modeling, without much c A simple homogeneous model for regular and irregular metallic wire media samples.
To simplify the solution of electromagnetic problems with wire media samples , it is reasonable to treat them as the samples of a homogeneous material without spatial dispersion. The account of spatial dispersion implies additional boundary conditions and makes the solution of boundary problems difficult especially if the sample is not an infinitely extended layer. Moreover, for a novel type of wire media - arrays of randomly tilted wires - a spatially dispersive model has not been developed.
Here, we introduce a simplistic heuristic model of wire media samples shaped as bricks. Our model covers WM of both regularly and irregularly stretched wires. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period. Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours or longer instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine.
Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more hour periods. Data were analyzed by using linear regression.
In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced P collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections , compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings. A 'feather-trap' for collecting DNA samples from birds. Genetic analyses of birds are usually based on DNA extracted from a blood sample.
For some species, however, obtaining blood samples is difficult because they are sensitive to handling, pose a conservation or animal welfare concern, or evade capture. In such cases, feathers obtained from live birds in the wild can provide an alternative source of DNA. Here, we provide the first description and evaluation of a 'feather-trap', consisting of small strips of double-sided adhesive tape placed close to a nest with chicks, as a simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive method to collect feathers.
The feather-trap was tested in tropical conditions on the Australian pheasant coucal Centropus phasianinus. None of the 12 pairs of coucals on which the feather-trap was used abandoned the nest, and feeding rates did not differ from those of birds not exposed to a feather-trap. On average, 4. The amount of genomic DNA extracted from each feather was sufficient to reliably genotype individuals at up to five microsatellite loci for parentage analysis.
We show that a feather-trap can provide a reliable alternative for obtaining DNA in species where taking blood is difficult. It may also prove useful for collecting feather samples for other purposes, e. Patients with celiac disease CD are increasingly interconnected through social media , exchanging patient experiences and health-tracking information between individuals through various web-based platforms. Social media represents potentially unique communication interface between gastroenterologists and active social media users - especially young adults and adolescents with celiac disease-regarding adherence to the strict gluten-free diet, gastrointestinal symptoms, and meaningful discussion about disease management.
Yet, various social media platforms may be underutilized for research purposes to collect patient-reported outcomes data. In this commentary, we summarize the scientific rationale and potential for future growth of social media in patient-reported outcomes research, focusing on college freshmen with celiac disease as a case study and provide overview of the methodological approach. Finally, we discuss how social media may impact patient care in the future through increasing mobile technology use. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles.
The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples.
The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1. Astronaut Charles M. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background. Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples.
A gas- sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification.
Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel.
The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra. Teacher training courses differ greatly in how teachers are prepared to teach media education. In this paper we shall investigate the attitudes of a sample of teachers trained in England, Malta and in Germany towards their perceived importance of media…. Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity.
Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable.
The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components including biomolecules of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission.
We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.
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This article presents the results of a study testing the direct and indirect effects of identity, media use, cognitions and conversations on physical activity PA. Exercise identity and ethnic identity were defined as pre-orientations O 1 ; use of PA-related media content was defined as the stimulus S ; reflective integration and conversations about PA-related media were post-orientations O 2 ; and self-reported physical activity was the behavioral response R. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data, and several compelling results emerged.
Exercise identity had a significant positive direct effect on PA and PA-related media use, as well as a significant positive indirect effect on conversations about PA-related media. PA-related media use exerted a strong and significant positive effect on conversations about PA-related media , as well as a significant positive indirect effect on PA. Finally, conversations about PA-related media content had a significant positive direct effect on PA.
The results indicate that identity acts as a filter influencing what media content are selected and that cognitions and conversations about media content can serve as a link between media use and health behavior. The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned samples comprised of kg. The 58 samples weighing The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved.
A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year , some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled . The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample , the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing.