To set wireless device en0 up or down without clicking on the icon at the top:. OSX does not come with the tree command that many other Linux distributions provide. So add it using:. By default, if you move the mouse to one of the corners of the screen, stuff happens. It can be annoying. The lower-left corner is less popular location on Mac than Windows.
For example, in a file on every macOS:. Mac, Windows, and Linux systems have a hosts file that locally does the work of the public DNS — translating host names typed on browser address field to IP address numbers. Analysis at one time showed this ranking by speed:. Different commands are needed for different versions of OS.
OSX The profile file is run during boot-up to configure the terminal to define file path, shims, and autocompletion handlers. One of the earliest articles on bash here shows shell variables, environment variables, and aliases. According to the bash man page ,. See Distriwatch. Paul Irish is one of top pros among developers, and now a Google Evangelist. He put his Mac configuration settings on github. But he recommends cloning github. On the Git page notice that he has established an industry convention of using Projects folder we defined earlier.
By default, if you have a long file name, it would leave little room to type in commands before it wraps to the next line.
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To redefine what appears in the prompt , edit this file using the vi editor that comes with each Mac: vi. Like on PCs, the PATH system environment variable stores where the operating system should look to find a particular program to execute. This talks about setting launchd.
This applies to all users. The root user has the ability to relocate or remove required system files and to introduce new files in locations that are protected from other users. After MacOS install, the root or superuser account is not enabled.
Command Line Primer
It is safer and easier to use the sudo command to gain temporary root access to the system. In a Terminal window invoke:. Jessie suggests this to create a Windows like shortcut with parameters in the Comments field. Another alternative is to use a text editor to create URL shortcut files like the ones Windows Internet Explorer stores its bookmarks.
Apple Safari recognizes them when clicked within Finder. So they are cross-platform. The following sections provide some basic information and tips about using the command-line interface more effectively; they are not intended as an exhaustive reference for using the shell environments. Before you start working in any shell environment, there are some basic features of shell scripting that you should understand.
Some of these features are specific to OS X, but most are common to all platforms that support shell scripting. In general, you run command-line tools that OS X provides by typing the name of the tool. For example, if you run the ls command, by default, it lists the files in your home directory.
To run this command, type ls and press Return. Most tools also can take a number of flags sometimes called switches. The -l flag tells the ls command to change its default behavior. Similarly, most tools take arguments. For example, to show a long listing of the files on your OS X desktop, type ls -l Desktop and press Return. In that command, the word Desktop is an argument that is the name of the folder that contains the contents of your OS X desktop.
In addition, some tools have flags that take flag-specific arguments in addition to the main arguments to the tool as a whole. Most commands in the shell operate on files and directories, the locations of which are identified by paths. The directory names that make up a path are separated by forward-slash characters. For example, the Terminal program is in the Utilities folder within the Applications folder at the top level of your hard drive. The shell along with, for that matter, all other UNIX applications and tools also has a notion of a current working directory.
When you specify a filename or path that does not start with a slash, that path is assumed to be relative to this directory. For example, if you type cat foo , the cat command prints the contents of the file foo in the current directory. You can change the current directory using the cd command. Table A-1 lists some of the standard shortcuts used to represent specific directories in the system. Because they are based on context, these shortcuts eliminate the need to type full paths in many situations. This value is often used as a shortcut to eliminate the need to type in a full path when running a command.
For example, if you type. This directory is used for navigating up one level towards the top of the directory hierarchy. For example, the path.. Note: Depending on the shell, if you follow a symbolic link into a subdirectory, typing cd.. At the beginning of a path, the tilde character represents the home directory of the specified user, or the currently logged in user if no user is specified. Most other characters, including space characters, should be avoided because they have special meaning to the shell.
Although some OS X file systems permit the use of these other characters, including spaces, you must do one of the following:. Add single or double quotation marks around the path or the portion that contains the offending characters. Single quotes are safer than double quotes because the shell does not do any interpretation of the contents of a single-quoted string. However, double quotes are less likely to appear in a filename, making them slightly easier to use. When in doubt, use a backslash before the character in question, or two backslashes to represent a literal backslash.
On a typical UNIX system, the storage provided by local disk drives is presented as a single tree of files descending from a single root directory. This differs from the way the Finder presents local disk drives, which is as one or more volumes, with each volume acting as the root of its own directory hierarchy. To satisfy both worlds, OS X includes a hidden directory, Volumes , at the root of the local file system. This directory contains all of the volumes attached to the local computer.
They do so using three standard file descriptors, which are created by the shell and are inherited by the program automatically. These standard file descriptors are listed in Table A The standard input file descriptor is the means through which a program obtains input from the user or other tools.
You can also redirect the output from files or other commands to stdin , allowing you to control one tool with another tool.
Linux tree command
By default, standard output sends data back to the user. You can also redirect this output to the input of other tools. By default, errors are displayed on the command line like standard output. The purpose for having a separate error descriptor is so that the user can redirect the actual output data from the tool to another tool without that data getting corrupted by non-fatal errors and warnings. To learn more about working with these descriptors, including redirecting the output of one tool to the input of another, read Shell Input and Output. To terminate the currently running program from the command line, press Control-C.
This keyboard shortcut sends an abort ABRT signal to the currently running process. In most cases this causes the process to terminate, although some tools may install signal handlers to trap this signal and respond differently. See Trapping Signals in Advanced Techniques for details. In addition, you can terminate most scripts and command-line tools by closing a Terminal window or SSH connection. This sends a hangup HUP signal to the shell, which it then passes on to the currently running program.
If you want a program to continue running after you log out, you should run it using the nohup command, which catches that signal and does not pass it on to whatever command it invokes. Shell scripting involves a mixture of built-in shell commands and standard programs that run in all shells. Although most shells offer the same basic set of commands, there are often variations in the syntax and behavior of those commands.
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In addition to the shell commands, OS X also provides a set of standard programs that run in all shells. Table A-3 lists some commands that are commonly used interactively in the shell. Most of the items in this table are not specific to any given shell. For syntax and usage information for each command, see the corresponding man page.
Displays the current date and time using the standard format. You can display this information in other formats by invoking the command with specific flags. Writes its arguments to stdout. This command is most often used in shell scripts to print status information to the user. Used to scroll through the contents of a file or the results of another shell command. This command allows forward and backward navigation through the text.
Displays the contents of the specified directory or the current directory if no path is specified. Pass the -a flag to list all directory contents including hidden files and directories.