Bách khoa toàn thư mở Wikipedia

Chomsky thought that a functionalist explanation restricting itself to questions of communicative performance ignored important questions. Chomsky-Language and Mind, He focused on questions concerning the operation and development of innate structures for syntax capable of creatively organizing, cohering, adapting and combining words and phrases into intelligible utterances.

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In the review Chomsky emphasized that the scientific application of behavioral principles from animal research is severely lacking in explanatory adequacy and is furthermore particularly superficial as an account of human verbal behavior because a theory restricting itself to external conditions, to "what is learned", cannot adequately account for generative grammar. Chomsky raised the examples of rapid language acquisition of children, including their quickly developing ability to form grammatical sentences, and the universally creative language use of competent native speakers to highlight the ways in which Skinner's view exemplified under-determination of theory by evidence.

He argued that to understand human verbal behavior such as the creative aspects of language use and language development, one must first postulate a genetic linguistic endowment. The assumption that important aspects of language are the product of universal innate ability runs counter to Skinner's radical behaviorism. This and similar critiques have raised certain points not generally acknowledged outside of behavioral psychology, such as the claim that Chomsky did not possess an adequate understanding of either behavioral psychology in general, or the differences between Skinner's behaviorism and other varieties; consequently, it is argued that he made several serious errors.

On account of these perceived problems, the critics maintain that the review failed to demonstrate what it has often been cited as doing. As such, it is averred that those most influenced by Chomsky's paper probably either already substantially agreed with Chomsky or never actually read it. It has been claimed that Chomsky's critique of Skinner's methodology and basic assumptions paved the way for the " cognitive revolution ", the shift in American psychology between the s through the s from being primarily behavioral to being primarily cognitive.

In his Cartesian Linguistics and subsequent works, Chomsky laid out an explanation of human language faculties that has become the model for investigation in some areas of psychology. Much of the present conception of how the mind works draws directly from ideas that found their first persuasive author of modern times in Chomsky. There are three key ideas.

First is that the mind is "cognitive", or that the mind actually contains mental states, beliefs, doubts, and so on. Second, he argued that most of the important properties of language and mind are innate. The acquisition and development of a language is a result of the unfolding of innate propensities triggered by the experiential input of the external environment. The link between human innate aptitude to language and heredity has been at the core of the debate opposing Noam Chomsky to Jean Piaget at the Abbaye de Royaumont in Language and Learning.

Although links between the genetic setup of humans and aptitude to language have been suggested at that time and in later discussions, we are still far from understanding the genetic bases of human language. It does not, however, provide clues about the type of rules that would organize neuronal connections to permit language competence. Subsequent psychologists have extended this general "nativist" thesis beyond language. Lastly, Chomsky made the concept of " modularity " a critical feature of the mind's cognitive architecture. The mind is composed of an array of interacting, specialized subsystems with limited flows of inter-communication.

419 Cau Hoi Nguyen Ly Co Ban Chu Nghia Mac Lenin

This model contrasts sharply with the old idea that any piece of information in the mind could be accessed by any other cognitive process optical illusions, for example, cannot be "turned off" even when they are known to be illusions. Chomsky strongly disagrees with post-structuralist and postmodern criticisms of science:. Chomsky has also commented on critiques of "white male science", stating that they are much like the anti-Semitic and politically motivated attacks against "Jewish physics" used by the Nazis to denigrate research done by Jewish scientists during the Deutsche Physik movement:.

Chomskyan models have been used as a theoretical basis in several other fields. The Chomsky hierarchy is often taught in fundamental computer science courses as it confers insight into the various types of formal languages. This hierarchy can also be discussed in mathematical terms [12] and has generated interest among mathematicians, particularly combinatorialists.

A number of arguments in evolutionary psychology are derived from his research results. Jerne , used Chomsky's generative model to explain the human immune system, equating "components of a generative grammar Nim Chimpsky , a chimpanzee who was the subject of a study in animal language acquisition at Columbia University , was named after Chomsky in reference to his view of language acquisition as a uniquely human ability. Noam Chomsky has been engaged in political activism all of his adult life and expressed opinions on politics and world events which are widely cited, publicized and discussed.

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Chomsky has in turn argued, that his views are those which the powerful do not want to hear, and for this reason he is considered an American political dissident. Some highlights of his political views:. If it isn't about reducing substance abuse, what is it about? It is reasonably clear, both from current actions and the historical record, that substances tend to be criminalized when they are associated with the so-called dangerous classes, that the criminalization of certain substances is a technique of social control " [14]. Chomsky has made connections between his linguistics research and more political topics.

An example is a debate with French philosopher Michel Foucault on the question of human nature , where Chomsky used the idea of innate linguistic capacity to criticize the idea that all human values and knowledge are entirely conditioned by societal conditions. However, Chomsky makes such connections only rarely, and is generally critical of the idea that competent discussion of political topics requires expert knowledge in academic fields.

In a interview, he said regarding the connection between his politics and his work in linguistics:. General Assembly. Despite his Jewish heritage he has been accused of antisemitism for his views on Israel's foreign policy and his involvement in the Faurisson affair , among other issues. Chomsky has argued that his actions in the Faurisson affair were limited to a defense of the rights of free expression of someone he disagrees with, and that critics subsequently subjected this limited defence to various interpretations.

In the late s he was accused of apologism for the Khmer Rouge , after he and Edward S. Herman charged that publicized accounts of the Cambodian genocide , also known as the Killing Fields , in the Western media were anti-communist propaganda. Chomsky has responded here [7]. Early in his career Chomsky was granted the prestigious MacArthur Award. Chomsky was voted the leading living public intellectual in The Global Intellectuals Poll conducted by the British magazine Prospect.

He reacted, saying "I don't pay a lot of attention to polls" [9]. In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman in , he was voted seventh in the list of "Heroes of our time". See a full bibliography on Chomsky's MIT homepage [10]. The Anti-Chomsky Reader.

Tam Khong Mac Do

ISBN Clio's Psyche. Thuyt ti a s. Maye ; Hc thuyt t bo M. L thuyt in t ca M. Pha-ra-y; nh lu t bo ton cc nguyn t ha hc ca Men--l-p; Di truyn hc hin i ca Men-e. Anh-xtanh; Hc thuyt v ti v v tr ca I. Hnh hc i -c lt; Mn hnh nguyn t ca Tm-x ; thuyt t i ca Anh-xtanh. Thuyt tin ha ca S. S -Lay-Den v T. K tc trit hc H-ghen. Ph phn cc thnh tu trit hc ca nhn loi. Ph phn tn gio. Ni dung hot ng nghin cu khoa hc ca. Mc v -ghen iai on A. Tip tc hon thnh cc tc phm trit hc nhm ph phn tn gio. Nghin cu v vai tr ca hot ng thc ti i vi nh n thc.

Bn tho kinh t-trit hc Tuyn ngn ca ng cng sn. Gia t n thnh. Tc phm quan tr v in hnh nht ca ch a Mc tro iai on ? Chng Duy-rinh. Bin chng ca t nhin. Ngun gc ca ia. Cu Tro iai on t , tc phm no ca P. Lt-vch Phoi- -bc v s co chung ca trit hc c i c. Tn gio l thuc phin ca nhn dn.

Cc nh khoa hc c gii thch th gii bng nhiu cch khc nhau, song v l ci to th gii. Ton cu ha. Ch a t bn chuyn thnh ch a quc v t ng xuyn tin hnh nhng cuc chin tranh ginh thuc a. Ba u sai. Nhng cng hin ca V. L i i vi trit hc Mc- Angghen? Ph phn, khc phc v chng li nh qua im sai lm xut hin trong thi i quc ch a :c a xt li ch a Mc, c a duy t v t l hc, bnh u tr t khuynh trong trit hc, ch a io iu B.

Hin thc ha l lu n ch a Mc bng s thng li ca Cch mng thng 10 Nga. C 3 tc phm trn. Qui lu t v kinh t th tr ng XHCN. Qui lu t v cnh tranh quc t. Lnin a ra qua im v vic xy dng nn kinh t th tr ng trong thi k qu ln CNXH trong l lu n no? Hc thuyt giai c v u tranh giai cp. L thuyt v s phn k trong thi k qu ln CNXH. Hc thuyt v c v cch mng. Nguyn i Quc t ra co ng gii phng dn tc ta t vic tm hiu tc phm no ca V. Bn v quyn dn tc t quyt. S kin x hi no l u ti c ng minh tnh hin thc ca ch a Mc-Lenin trong lch s? Cng x Pa-ri. Cch m t 8 Vit Nam. Chin tranh th gii ln th II.

Mt s c khu vc M La-tinh. Xy dng ni ti l t ng cho sinh vin. Nhng yu cu hc t p nghin cu nh uy l c bn ca ch ng a Mc- Lenin? Cn phi theo nguyn tc t ng xuyn gn kt nh qua i c bn ca ch a Mc- Lenin vi thc tin ca t c v thi i. Hc t p nghin cu nh uy l c bn ca ch a Mc- Lenin trong mi quan h vi cc nguyn l khc, mi b ph n cu thnh trong mi quan h vi cc b ph n cu t k c thy s thng nht phong ph v nht qun ca ch a Mc- Lenin ng thi c cn nh n thc cc uy l tro tin trnh pht trin ca lch s nhn loi. Qua im ca CNDV v mt th nht ca v c bn ca trit hc? V t cht v thc xut hi ng thi v c s tc ng qua li ngang nhau.

V thc cht, ch a nguyn trit hc c cng bn cht vi h thng trit l no? Ch a duy t. Ch a xt li trit hc. Ngun gc ra i ca CNDT? S tuyt i ha vai tr ca thc. Xem xt phin din, tuyt i ha, thn thnh ha mt mt, mt c t o ca qu trnh nh n thc mang tnh bin chng ca co i. Tuyt i ha vai tr ca lao ng tr c v ca giai cp thng tr.

Do c 3 nguyn nhn trn.

Trong lch s, CNDT c hnh thc c bn no? Ch a duy t c quan. A-ri-stot l i din ca tr ng phi trit hc no Ty t i c i? Ch a nguyn trit hc. Sng to ra k uy ng trit hc. Ch a duy v t bin chng. Ch a duy vt siu hnh. Thuyt nguyn t ca -m-crit. Logic hc ca A-ri-stot. Hc thuyt v tn ti ca Pc-m-nt. Ti sao Chu u thi c i, trit hc duy vt li pht trin mnh m? Khoa hc t nhin pht trin mnh m.

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Do ng ca k uy ng chng li ch a ki vin ca thn hc thin cha gio. La ca H-ra-clit. Khng kh ca A-na-xi-men. Nguyn t ca -m-crit. Ch a duy v t siu hnh. Xem v t cht l sn phm ca tinh thn tuyt i, nim tuyt i B. Xem v t cht l sn phm ca thc ch quan, ca trng thi tm l, tnh c C. Xem v t cht l kt qu ca cc gi tr tinh thn. C 3 quan nim trn. Cm gic. Nh n thc. Ni dung phm tr v t cht t eo a ca Lnin: A. V t cht l ci tn ti c thc mt cch khch quan bn ngoi thc v khng ph thuc vo thc ca co i. Khc phc nh qua im sai lm, thiu st tro cc qua im siu hnh, my mc v phm tr v t cht ca cc tr ng phi trit hc duy vt c; ng quan nim sai lm, phn khoa hc ca cc tr ng phi trit hc duy tm ni chung, bo v, cng c v pht trin trit hc Mc tro iu kin lch s mi.

T eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin, cc dng c th ca v t cht biu hin s tn ti ca mnh u v thng qua g? Cc dng c th ca v t cht tn ti tro v tr v tn ti thng qua lc trong t nhin. Cc dng c th ca v t cht tn ti trong khng gian, thi gian v thng qua s v ng m biu hin s tn ti ca mnh. V t cht ch l phm tr trit hc.

Tnh cht ca v t eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin: A. Hnh thc no l hnh thc v a dng, phc tp nht trong th gii v t cht? Cc phn ng ht nhn. S tin ha cc loi. Cc hnh thc v ng l khc nhau v cht. Cc hnh thc v l c l p nhau, tun theo nhng qui lu t ring c ca mnh. Vic phn loi, phn ngnh, hp loi, hp ngnh khoa hc. Xc nh tnh cht ca cc ngnh khoa hc.

Xc nh mc c ca khoa hc. K uy ng thc dng trong khoa hc. K uy ng thn b- tn gio trong trit hc. Mi lin h. Khng gian. Thi gian. Qung tnh. Tnh v t cht. S tn ti c trong t nhin v c trong x hi. Tnh khch quan. Tnh hin thc. T nhin. Nguyn t. Mt loi nguyn t c bit. Mt loi la c bit. T eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin, thc l thuc tnh ca dng v t cht no? Khoa hc. L tnh. T eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin, s i l p gia v t cht v thc ch c a tuyt i trong phm vi no?

Kinh t. Qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin v ngun gc x hi ca thc: A. Lao ng to ra ngn ng, ngn ng to ra thc. Lao ng, cng vi lao ng l ngn ng l hai sc kch thch ch yu hnh thnh nn thc co i. Lao ng to ra thc lao ng, ngn ng to ra thc c ngn ng. Lao ng to ra kinh nghim, ngn ng to ra t duy. Ngn ng xut hin nhm gii quyt nhu cu c o co i tro qu tr lao ng mang tnh x hi ca h?

Trao i thng tin. L u tr tri thc. Ngun gc x hi trc tip quan trng nht quyt nh s ra i v pht trin ca thc? Thc nghim khoa hc. Lao ng v ngn ng. Gio dc co i. Qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin v bn cht ca thc: A. Tc nhn no khin cho s phn nh thc c tnh phc t , ng v sng to?

Thc tin x hi. S giao tip. Chn lc thng tin thch ng nhu cu tn ti v pht trin ca co i. X l thng tin. D o cc t ti tim n trong v vn thng tin ca th gii hin thc khch quan. Biu hin ca t ng sng to ca thc co i iai on v n dng l thuyt vo thc tin: A. Ty theo nhu cu ca hin thc, s dng kin thc va x l m t hin thc. Pht minh ra nhng quy lu t nhng hc thuyt mi. Ty theo nhu cu ca cuc sng hin thc, thit l p cc k hoch, d , to ra nhng sn phm v t cht hoc tinh thn phc v cho s tn ti v pht trin ca co i.

Trong cc giai on ca qu trnh hnh thc, th iai on o y v r nt nht lc sng to ca con i? Tip nh n thng tin. Nu tip c n kt cu ca thc theo cc yu t c bn hp thnh, th thc bao gm nhng yu t no? Tri thc, tnh cm v ch. T thc, tim thc, v thc. L tnh, tm linh, trc gic. S trc gic. Qu trnh nh n thc. Qu tr lao ng.

S cm gic. L rng v ci. Tri t l mt hnh tinh. Tri sinh voi thi tri sinh c. Qua im ca Mc- Lnin v vai tr ca tim thc? C th d o c nhng thng tin tri thc dng tim tng. Sn xut v t cht. Chnh tr x hi. L lu n khoa hc. Siu l tnh. Khi ni o d ch nhng mi lin h, t tc, chuyn ha v v ng, pht trin theo quy lu t cc s v t, hi t ng, qu trnh trnh trong gii t nhin, x hi v t duy? Bin chng. Duy v t. Php bin chng l?

Hc thuyt nghin cu, khi qut th gii nhm xy dng h thng cc nguyn tc lu n ca nh n thc v thc tin. Hc thuyt nghin cu, khi qut bin chng ca th gii thnh h thng cc nguyn l, quy lu t khoa hc nhm xy dng h thng cc nguyn tc lu n ca nh n thc v thc tin. Hc thuyt nghin cu, khi qut s tn ti ca th gii thnh h thng cc nguyn l, quy lu t khoa hc.

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Hc thuyt nghin cu, khi qut bin chng trong phm vi cuc sng chnh tr x hi thnh h thng cc nguyn l, quy lu t khoa hc nhm nh n thc v hot ng thc tin. Do c v ng, bi i v pht trin khng ngng do nhng nguyn nhn t thn tun theo nhng quy lu t tt yu khch quan. Tn ti c l , t ti khng v ng v pht trin, hoc nu c v ng th ch l s dch chuyn v tr trong khng gian v thi gian do nhng nguyn nhn bn ngoi. Kt qu s sng to ca mt th lc siu nhin th b. Do i s tn ti bin i ca chng l do nh tc ng ca nhng nguyn nhn thn b trn. Php bin chng thi c i. Thu t ngy bin trong thi k trung c. Php bin chng duy v t Mc-Lnin.

Lgic hc ca A-ri-xtot. Thi nguyn thy. Thi c i. Thi hi i. Con vua th li lm vua, con si nh cha th li qut l a. Tre i c. Ht ha bnh li n chin tranh, ht chin tranh li n ha bnh. Xem s v ng l mt qu trnh ngu nhin. Sai l c bn ca php bin chng trong trit hc c i c? T l i iu khin mi qu trnh v ng v pht trin ca th gii. Php bin chng l ngh thu t tranh lu n, bin lu n v chng minh. L khoa hc v mi lin h ph bin v s pht trin ca th gii khch quan. Nguyn l v mi lin h ph bi t eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin:. Tnh thng nht v t cht ca th gii. Khng gian v thi gian.

T eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin, mi lin h ch yu l g? Mi lin h c b c trong nhng phm vi khng gian thi ia , iu ki i tr ng nht nh. Mi lin h tt yu khch quan. Mi lin h ch yu gia c ta vi cc quc gia khc trong WTO l?

Chnh tr-x hi. Trong qu trnh hc t p, lin h gia sinh vin vi tri thc khoa hc l lin h g? Tt nhin, khch quan. Ch quan, ngu nhin. Nhn qu. Nguyn tc o c rt ra t vic tm hiu nguyn l v mi lin h ph bin ca trit hc Mc-Lnin? Nguyn tc u tranh. Qua im ton din. Nguyn tc khch quan. Qua im duy tm v mi lin h gia cc s v t hi t ng trong th gii khch quan? S pht tri do t to ra. Qua im duy tm v ngun gc ca s pht trin ca cc s v t hi t ng trong th gii? Do s tc ng ca nhng th lc siu t nhin thn b tn gio hoc ca thc ni chung. Nguyn l v s pht tri t eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin: A. Pht trin l mt qu trnh tin ln lin tc tr tru, khng c nh b c quanh co phc tp khng c mu thun.

T eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnnin, s khc bit c bn gia s v ng v s pht trin l? S v ng l ni dung, s pht trin l hnh thc. Bi hc c a lu n quan trng nht trong vic tm hiu nguyn l v s pht trin ca trit hc Mc-Lnin: A. Nguyn tc nghin cu c trng tm. Qua im pht trin. Ht tri li sng.

Ht c bi cc ti hi thai lai. Ngh nghip. Sc lao ng. L cng dn. L tr thc. V ci ring tn ti nhiu v. V trong ci ring ngoi ci chung cn tn ti ci c t D. T eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-lnin th khi no ci chung chuy a t ci t? Khi ci chung b thoi ha dn dn. Khi ci chung c nh t bin. Sm st- a. Kinh t-gio dc.

Nng- hn. N uy c bn no d n s khn cng ca giai cp cng nhn trong ch TBCN? Gi c hng ha sinh hot qu t. Nhn t c bn. T eo qua im ca trit hc Mc-Lnin, mun nh n thc c ci tt nhin ta phi l t no? Nh n thc th gii khch quan. Nh n thc thng qua hng lot ci ngu nhin. K tha cc qua im ca cc nh khoa hc tin bi. Tri nng tt d a, tri a tt la. Tr p th tr ngoan. Tng hp tt c nhng mt, nhng yu t, nhng qu trnh to nn s v t.

Kt cu h tng. Quan h sn xut. Thng nht.